لغات مهم مبحث “Cities and infrastructure”
مهم ترین و ضروری ترین مباحثی که در رایتینگ و اسپیکینگ آیلتس مطرح میشود را میتوان در 10 بخش بررسی نمود.
این بخش از لغات آیلتسی سایت مهم ترین وکاربردی ترین کلمات مباحث ضروری را در یک درس جداگانه از لغات آیلتسی مورد بررسی قرار می دهد.
برای مثال در ادامه، لغات مهم مبحث “Cities and infrastructure” را خواهید دید که تلفظ هر کلمه کنار آن وجود دارد و با کلیک بر روی “تلفظ” میتوانید به تلفظ صحیح آن واژه گوش دهید.
همچنین مثالى مناسب برای استفاده در اسپيكينگ آورده شده است و در پايان مبحث نیز يك رايتينگ تسك 2 كامل با كل كلمات آموزش داده شده اين مبحث برای یادگیری کاربردی هر یک ازاین لغات هم در اسپیکینگ و هم در رایتینگ می باشد.
لازم به ذکر است این دروس قابل استفاده براى همه زبان اموزان بالای سطح متوسط می باشد.
📌 Urban crime is a great concern for the authorities in most countries today.
🔶🔹 investment or funding
📌 My home town secured investment from a charity for a new stadium, and funding from a local company for sponsorship.
📌 The UK railway infrastructure dates back to the 1860’s in many places.
📌 Sea container ships are high-capacity international freight provider.
🔶🔹 public transport
📌 I usually get to work by public transport, even though it’s very crowded.
(اين كلمه صورت آكادميك كلمه traffic ميباشد)
📌 I have to leave home very early in the mornings, because of the congestion on the way to my college.
(شهر مهم مركزى، منظومه شهرى)
📌 Sao Paolo is a huge conurbation in Brazil, and is still expanding.
🔶🔹 transport hubs
(قطب هاى حمل و نقل، مركز تبادل سفر)
📌 Heathrow airport is the largest transport hub in Europe.
🔶🔹 facilities and amenities
📌 My home city has many amenities such as swimming pools and parks, and several facilities for elderly people such as care homes.
(راه تنگ پرترافيك)
📌 The connection from a motorway to a local road is always a big bottleneck.
(ازدحام بيش از حد)
📌 Hong Kong has managed its overcrowding problem very skilfully.
(منطقه اى اطراف شهر متأثر از پيشرفت ان شهر)
📌 I live in the hinterland of our capital city, where we regularly go for shopping and for work projects.
🔶🔹 to settle in a place
(جابه جايي و زندگى در جايى معمولا براى كار و با خانواده)
📌 I was born in Asia, but my parents settled in the USA when I was very young.
🔶🔹 urban sprawl
📌 Urban sprawl has resulted in the rapid expansion of many Asian cities, with resulting damage to the environment.
🔶🔹 civic pride
📌 As a symbol of civic pride, we built a new park zone with sports amenities and educational exhibitions.
🔶🔹 tax incentives
(كم كردن ماليات براى تشويق كردن مردم به كارى يا خريدن چيزى)
📌 We should use tax incentives to encourage more people to try using their own solar panels at home.
🔶🔹 home working
(كار در خانه در كل هفته)
📌 Home working can be quite an isolated way to do your job.
🔶🔹 to commute
(رفت و آمد کردن مکرر یا روزانه به محل كار)
📌 I live in the suburbs and commute by train to the city centre.
📌 Life in the suburbs can be rather boring, to be honest.
🔶🔹 the inner city
(قسمت قديمى و مركزى شهر)
📌 Inner city housing is often overcrowded and noisy.
📌 Mobile computing was one of the great innovations of the last ten years.
نمونه سوال رایتینگ تسک 2 آیلتس درباره مبحث “Cities and infrastructure” :
⁉️ Transport delays and long journey times are a widespread phenomenon in many cities today. What are the causes of this problem, and how could the situation be impro
نمونه پاسخ نمره 9 به سوال فوق:
Transport is an essential part of urban life, and lengthy journeys are frustrating and expensive for those concerned. There appear to be two main causes of this, and several possible solutions, as we will explain here.
Perhaps the main cause is the lack of investment or funding for infrastructure in the form of high-capacity public transport and increased road space for private vehicles. This means that too many vehicles use the existing network, and congestion is inevitable. We see this in most large cities globally, such as London or Tokyo. Many conurbations also lack finance for transport hubs, such as integrated road and rail facilities which could connect public and private transport, thus reducing bottlenecks. A further cause seems to be the problem of overcrowding in cities, whereby people migrate from the hinterland and settle in urban areas, putting strain on amenities, housing and above all on transport capacity. This means that an already stretched system is often pushed to a critical point, causing cancellations and breakdowns in the technology used, especially in situations of urban sprawl such as in Latin America.
Regarding potential solutions, probably the main remedy would be to encourage investment in better infrastructure, for example through subsidies or public-private partnerships as was tried successfully in Germany during the 1990’s. This enhances the network and fosters a sense of civic pride, to everyone’s benefit. Another solution may be to use tax incentives to allow more home working, so that there is less need to commute from the suburbs to the inner city for work. A final response might be the development of more flexible patterns of transport, such as communal carpooling, which would reduce reliance on existing systems and vehicles.
In conclusion, it seems that outdated infrastructure and overcrowding are the key factors behind our transport frustrations. Possible solutions would involve better funding, and also innovations in ways of working and travelling to reduce the burden on the system.